A defined spatial and temporal control of induction of toxicity in response to external ionizing radiation such as X-rays has unique clinical benefits over conventional systems such as passive drug delivery or its activation. Here, we have combined X-rays with well characterized nanoscintilators emitting light that activates paired photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) that improves the prowess of PDT to deep seated tumor treatment. Yttrium oxide nanoparticle construct doped with Europium (YOE) and coated with a silica layer entrapping methylene blue (MB) as the photosensitizer was fabricated. The nanoconstruct (YSM, for YOE, silica, MB) was decorated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to make it biocompatible and characterized extensively for physicochemically parameters. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a resultant average nanoparticle diameter of 24.1 ± 5.7 nm, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) a hydrodynamic diameter of 135.3 ± 17.9 nm. This nanoconstruct was evaluated for its ability to generate singlet oxygen reactive oxygen species upon irradiation using singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) fluorescence assay. Further, demonstrated that this nanoconstruct was taken up by cancer cells in vitro and by tumors in vivo. The uptake of YSM particles by Panc02 murine pancreatic cancer cells was tested by inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry. This demonstrated robust uptake in cells after 24hr incubation. No noticeable cell death occurred with doses of 0 Gy and 4 Gy, cell viability decreased significantly after a dose of 8 Gy irradiation in cells cultured with YSM when compared to controls. Since 8 Gy is within the range of a clinically applicable dose used routinely in stereotactic radiotherapy regimens, these results verified the potential of YSM to be used as scintillator-photosensitizer complexes for x-ray activated photodynamic therapy. Finally the biodistribution of YSM nanoconstructs in vivo in C57BL6 mice harboring subcutaneous Panc02 tumors show YSM accumulation in tumors. A versatile, biocompatible Yttrium oxide scintillator-photosensitizer complex (YSM) that can generate x-ray induced cytotoxic reactive oxygen species is fabricated. This is capable of facilitating x-ray activated photodynamic therapy (XPDT (external beam) and/or iXPDT (internal x-ray source)). It shows promise in maximizing the efficacy of the combinatory treatment and enhanced improvement of the quality of life and overall survival of cancer patients.
Citation Format: Rao V. Papineni, Sunil Krishnan, Ajayan Pulickel, Onur Sahin. Development of radiation-triggered phosphor platform for localized activation in combinatory cancer treatment [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 3057.
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